University of Kansas Nurses Alumni Association
Virginia Commonwealth University
International Council of Nurses
The Nightingale Pledge was composed by Lystra Gretter, an instructor of nursing at the old Harper Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, and was first used by its graduating class in the spring of 1893. It is an adaptation of the Hippocratic Oath taken by physicians.
Florence Nightingale, 1860
Florence Nightingale, 1912
American Association for the History of Nursing, Inc.